Sean Groff

Introduction to Refs in React 16.3

August 07, 2018

What are Refs?

Refs? Refs in React 16.3? If you’re still a little green with React it’s not unusual to have never heard of refs. I completed a couple projects at work before I was introduced to refs. In this article I will briefly introduce refs and why they aren’t typically taught when first learning React. I will spend the rest of this article introducing you to the createRef() API that was released in React version 16.3.

If you know what refs are in React feel free to skip ahead to the Refs in React section.

Why Refs?

You can do just about everything you need in React using props and state. So why do you need refs? One common use case is managing focus on a text input element.

Let’s say I want the text element to focus after pressing enter to submit some data from a form. You’ve likely created a stateful class component with a custom handleSubmit() lifecycle method. Your handleSubmit() lifecycle method likely grabs the state property that was updated via user input from the text input element and submits the data.

Here’s where the ref comes in. From the handleSubmit() lifecycle method, how do we set the text input element to be focused so the user can easily enter more data? How do we REFerence the text input element to focus?


Prior to React v16.3 the callback ref was the preferred way to create and use refs. Callback refs are fine. I prefer the createRef() API to the callback ref for a couple reasons.

If you use an inline callback function for your ref a new function is created for every re-render. This is the case with any arrow function inside the render method.

The inline callback function will also be called twice during updates. The first call produces a null value before the element is returned on the second call. To see this in action checkout the Callback Ref Code Sandbox Example

CreateRef API in React v16.3

You can create and use a ref in three easy steps using the createRef API.

Ref Creation

In your class constructor method create a class property and assign React.createRef() to it.

class RefExample extends React.Component {
  constructor(props) {

    // create a ref to store the textInput element
    this.inputNewItem = React.createRef()

Add Ref to DOM Element

Tell React to associate the inputNewItem we created in the constructor with the input ref.

render() {
  <form onSubmit={this.handleSubmit}>
    <input type="text" ref={this.inputNewItem} />

Use the Ref!

Inside our handleSubmit method let’s tell React to have the input focused.

handleSubmit = () => {
  // omitting form submission code


From the React Docs

React will assign the current property with the DOM element when the component mounts, and assign it back to null when it unmounts. ref updates happen before componentDidMount or componentDidUpdate lifecycle hooks.

Refs in TypeScript

Here’s how a ref using the createRef API is defined in TypeScript.

class RefExample extends React.Component {
  private inputNewItem: React.RefObject<TextInput> = React.createRef()

I prefer not using a class constructor

I find Refs created using the createRef API to be more explicit without the cons I stated above using callback refs.

I wrote this blog post so you can start using the createRef API right away. If i’m missing something you’d like included in this blog post leave a comment or reach out to me on Twitter @_SeanGroff


Sean Groff

I am Sean, a Software Engineer in Kansas City passionate about React and JavaScript.